昭和新山

北海道有珠郡壮瞥町にある『昭和新山』は支忽洞爺国立公園に含まれる火山で標高398メートルあります。 1943年12月、有珠山周辺で前兆地震が始まり、翌1944年1月に入ると震源は次第に有珠山東山麓に集中するようになりました。

麦畑や集落、道路、鉄道であったところの地盤が隆起し始め、4月にはもとの地面から16メートル隆起しましたが、4月中旬からは隆起の中心は北方のフカバ集落へと移り50メートルほど隆起しました。
6月23日フカバ集落西方の畑から水蒸気爆発が発生し、10月末までに十数回の大きな爆発を起こし7つもの火口を作りました。7月には火砕サージが発生して湖畔の防風林や家屋が焼失しました。

その後も地盤の隆起は続き、海抜250メートルほどの潜在ドームとなりました。12月初旬には潜在ドームから三角形の溶岩ドームが姿を現し、1945年9月までに海抜407メートルの『昭和新山』が誕生しました。
昭和新山は成長の過程で地中の粘土が熱で焼き付き、赤褐色の天然レンガに覆われています。

また、川原石が溶岩ドームの中腹で見つかるなど、もともとそこが畑であったことを示す多くの証拠を見つけることができます。地表の温度は現在でも高いところで300℃ほどあるため、植生はそれほど見ることができませんが、山頂部は噴火後の攪乱により独特の景観を形成しています。一方山麓部では噴火から60年以上が経過してドロノキの林を見ることができます。

2010年に撮影された『昭和新山』の映像です。

火山活動当時は第二次世界大戦中で、食料もなく、フィルム・紙・衣類にも事欠く中、誰一人として研究する学者もいませんでした。
そんな中、地元の郵便局長 三松正夫さんがその成長の詳細な観察記録を作成しました。これは後年、オスローで開かれた「万国火山会議」に提出され貴重な資料となり“ミマツダイヤグラム”と名付けられ、多くの専門家に絶賛されたのです。

さらに三松さんは世界的にも貴重な火山の徹底的な保護と、家と農場を失った住民の生活の支援のために、昭和21年、私財をなげうって民家から山になってしまったこの土地を買い取ったのです。
このため昭和新山は三松家の私有地でもあり、ニュージーランドのホワイト島等と同じく、世界でも珍しい私有地内にある火山となりました。1951年には国の天然記念物に指定され、1957年には特別天然記念物に指定されました。

国内でも「第一回北海道文化賞」を始め数々の賞を受け、その功績が讃えられた三松さんは昭和52年、生涯3度目の有珠山噴火を体験しその活動の終幕を待たず12月8日病にて没しました。
御年89歳で亡くなられた三松さんの、自然を愛する思いは昭和新山の麓に銅像として蘇り、この山をいつまでも守り続けてくくれることでしょう。

現在、昭和新山の山麓には、三松正夫記念館が建っており、三松正夫による観測記録などの資料類が展示されているほか、昭和新山山麓駅から登るロープウェイ、麓にはガラス館やたくさんのヒグマが見れるクマ牧場などたくさんの見所があるのも楽しみの一つです。温度低下と侵食などによって年々縮んでいる昭和新山。現在も火山活動が行われていますが20世紀で最も新しい火山の一つを見に行きましょう。

【昭和新山】 住所:〒052-0102 北海道有珠郡壮瞥町昭和新山 TEL/0142-66-2750

昭和新山と見守るように建つ三松正夫さんの銅像 http://www.town.sobetsu.lg.jp/kanko/midokoro/syowa_sinzan/shinzan.jpg

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