アポイ岳高山植物群落

アポイ岳は、北海道様似郡様似町かつ日高山脈支稜線西南端に位置し、一等三角点(点名「冬島」)で標高810メートルの山です。日本列島は氷河期にサハリン・千島列島・朝鮮半島と陸続きだったため、北方系の植物が南下していて気候が温暖になった時、その一部がアポイ岳一帯に取り残され長い年月を経て適応しました。

指定地域は、アポイ岳の五合目(350メートル)付近から山頂までの登山道周辺と、山頂部分を中心として北陵沿いのピンネシリ(958メートル)から南稜沿いに延長7キロメートルの南北にほぼ細長い範囲を合わせた359.9ヘクタールで道有林です。

地名の由来はアイヌ語の「アペ・オ・イ」(火のあるところ)の意味があります。山は「幌満橄欖岩」と呼ばれているかんらん岩でできており、岩石の風化が遅い上に、風化してできた土壌は風雨で移動しやすく堆積しにくいという特殊な自然体系となっていることから、1952年に高山植物帯が「アポイ岳高山植物郡落」として国の特別天然記念物に指定されました。
1981年には日高山脈襟裳国定公園の特別保護区となりました。標高が低いわりに特殊な岩体のため森林が発達せず、「蛇紋岩植物」が生育する高山植物の宝庫として有名です。

海岸からわずか4キロメートルにあるこの山では、夏に発生する海からの濃霧が日光を遮って気温を低下させる一方、冬は太平洋側の気候で積雪量が少なく、低い山にしては地温が下がる為、2,000メートル級の高山と同じような気象条件になります。

春のアポイ岳に咲く高山植物たちの映像です。皆さんは全ての花の名前がわかりますか?

道内の山では1,000メートル以上でないとハイマツ帯、つまり高山植物帯が出現せず、800メートル前後の山であればエゾマツ・ドトマツ林になるのが普通ですが、アポイ岳では五合目から高山植物が場所によっては300メートルくらいからハイマツ群落が現れます。
これは、寒冷な気候と貧弱な土壌の為、高木が育ちにくく通常の植生にはならないからで、特に500m付近の馬の背中から頂上に至る西尾根に高山植物郡が見られます。そこを中心にヒダカソウ・エゾコウゾリナ・エゾイヌノヒゲ・アポイアザミ・アポイカンバ・サマニオトギリなど固有種や多くの固有変種を含め、80種類以上の貴重な植物が確認されています。

そして、山麓から広葉樹林帯、針葉樹林帯、ダケカンバ帯、ハイマツ帯と移り変わっていくはずの所、九合目から頂上にかけてハイマツ帯からダケカンバ帯に逆戻りしています。強風の影響が弱まっている為などとされていますが、下草にスズラン・ミヤマエンレイソウなどの山麓部の植物を伴っていてとても謎深い山と言えるでしょう。

【アポイ岳高山植物群落】
住所:〒058-0003 北海道様似郡様似町冬島 TEL/0146-36-2521

3,761 thoughts on “アポイ岳高山植物群落

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